Repoussť overlays: hand- or machine-made?

Many collectors are under the impression that many if not most overlays with work in relief were made by hand. In fact, the vast majority were stamped in dies or roll-embossed, and it is likely that others (especially high-relief pieces) were created by electrodeposition – the same technique used for early silver filigrees (see our article on fine silver overlays).

This is not to say that handwork was not used to finish off the piece; nonetheless, it is clear that time-saving measures would have been taken on all but special-order pieces that were unique or nearly so.